KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS IKAN
DI SEPANJANG PERAIRAN SUNGAI RANGAU,
Program studi Biologi PMIPA, FKIP, Universitas Riau
Diterima 13-8-2001 Disetujui 17-9-2001
A study on the species diversity of fishes at eight stations along the Rangau River in Riau-Sumatra was conducted in July 1997 (dry season) and February 1998 (rainy season). A total of 70 fish species, belonging to 44 genera and 21 families were captured using fish pots, cast net, hand net and fishing rods. The most varied species of fish belonged to the Cyprinidae (17 species) followed by Siluridae (10 species) and Bagridae (8 species), whereas the remaining number of families of fish each consisted less than six species. A total of 27 species of fish were caught from eight stations using cast net. In the dry season the highest diversity index (H1) were at station VIII (downstream) and the lowest was at station IV. In the rainy season the highest diversity index (H1) are at station VI and the lowest was at station I (upstream). Fish species diversity along the course of the Rangau River is correlated with the varying characteristics of the river habitats. Fish species diversity index in the dry season is significantly correlated with water temperature and total organic matter. Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker and Wallago leeri Bleeker, which are species of high commercial value, have became rare in the Rangau River.
Keywords: species diversity, status of fishes, Rangau river, Riau
PEMURNIAN SELULASE EKSTRAK SELULAR
Trichoderma harzianum TNC52
Silvera Devi*, Indriati, Titania T. Nugroho
Jurusan Kimia, FMIPA, Universitas Riau
Diterima 19-8-2001 Disetujui 30-9-2001
Trichoderma harzianum TNC52 is a Riau endogenous strain, isolated from cocoa plantation soil in Riau. Purification of cellulose from Trichoderma harzianum TNC52, has been done with several steps including production and isolation of crude extract of cellulase, concentrating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and purification by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-75). Homogeneity characterizations of the purification results were analyzed by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The reducing sugars released by the cellulase activity on carboxy methyl cellulose was determined by the Nelson-Somogyi method. Protein concentrations were determined by the Lowry method. Three fractions analyzed from 100 collected fractions, gave high cellulase activity. Specific activity of the three fractions namely, fraction number 15, 16 and 22 were 6.64 unit/mg, 1.96 unit/mg and 1.14 unit/mg consecutively. The crude extract activity was only 0.33 unit/mg. The end purification factor obtained was 19.95x for fraction number 15; 5.87x for fraction number 16 and 3.41x for fraction number 22. Homogeneity testing with SDS-PAGE gave two bands that were detected using Coomassie blue staining for fraction number 22 which were approximately 42,390 and 33,229 Dalton.
Keywords: T. harzianum TNC52, cellulase
APLIKASI BILANGAN FUZZY TRIANGULAR
PADA PERMASALAHAN PROGRAM TAK-LINIER
MULTI-OBJEKTIF DENGAN PARAMETER FUZZY
Jurusan Matematika, FMIPA,Universitas Riau
The multiobjective nonlinear programming problems with fuzzy parameters could be formulated to be nonfuzzy multiobjective nonlinear programming problems by using a-level set of triangular fuzzy numbers. The optimal solution of the nonfuzzy multiobjective nonlinear programming problem is said to be an a-pareto optimal solution for a certain value a Î (0,1). The nonfuzzy multiobjective nonlinear programming problem was solved by weighting metode approach where the weighting set is obtained by using compromise solution, that was found the minimum and maximum of each objective function.
Keywords: Fuzzy number, Triangular fuzzy number, Multiobjective- Nonlinear programming
EFEKTIVITAS BAKTERI PELARUT FOSFAT Pseudomonas sp. TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KEDELAI
(Glycine max L.) PADA TANAH PODSOLIK MERAH KUNING
Laboratorium Biologi, FKIP, Universitas Riau
This study was conducted to reveal the effectivity of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. on phosphorus availability. Glycine max L. was used as an experimental plant that was grown on podsolic soil. The experiment was conducted using Factorial Randomized Complete Design with three replicates. The tested microbes were P. diminuta and P. cepaceae. Triple Super Phosphate and rock phosphate were used as fertilizer (phosphate source). The results showed that phosphate-solubilizing bacteria increased phosphorus availability, uptake and distribution in Glycine max L. P. cepaceae had higher ability to solubilize phosphates than P. diminuta.
Keywords: Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, Glycine max L.,
P. cepaceae, P. diminuta.
ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI KOMPONEN FRAKSI METANOL
KULIT BATANG RENGAS (Gluta renghas Linn.)
Jimmi Copriady*, Miharty, Herdini
Program studi Kimia PMIPA, FKIP,Universitas Riau
Diterima 18-8-2001 Disetujui 17-9-2001
Isolation and identification the flavonoid compound have been conducted. Extraction was done by maseration, followed by chromatographic separation on silica gel colomn using various eluent systems. The result of purification was an oranye amorphous solid (fraction C3.3) with melting point of 213-2150C. The specific rotation gave [a]D25 +66,7 (c = 0.16 in aceton-water 1:1 v/v). Elucidation for structur determination was done by spectroscopy techniques such as ultraviolet spectrometry, infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR-1H and NMR-13C). Base on spectroscopic data this compound is presumed as gallokatekin (7,3’,4’,5’-pentahidroksiflavan-3-ol).
Keywords: Gluta renghas Linn., flavonoid, gallokatekin, isolation, identification
PERBANDINGAN MODIFIKASI METODE RUNGE-KUTTA ORDE-4 BERDASARKAN VARIASI RATA-RATA
M. Imran*, Syamsudhuha
Jurusan Matematika, FMIPA,Universitas Riau
A comparison of modified the fourth order classical Runge-Kutta method based on the harmonic mean and geometry mean to solve an initial value problem y’=f(x,y),…y(x0)=y0 was carried out by looking into their local truncated errors, stabilities and efficiencies. A comparison was also performed by doing computations for f depended on x and y, and for f depended on y only.
Keywords: Runge-Kutta method, arithmetic mean, harmonic mean
PEMBESARAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio)
HASIL PEMBENIHAN DENGAN TEKNIK KEJUTAN SUHU
Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Padang Marpoyan, Riau
Diterima 11-8-2001 Disetujui 14-9-2001
This research was carried out at the fishponds of the cooperative farmer in Pulau Gadang Baru, XIII Koto Kampar district, Kampar. Fish fry with shock temperature breeding technique and feed formulation have been introduced. The aims of the research are to get information about the growth rate of fish fry with shock temperature breeding technique, to produce prime fish fry and to obtain information about high efficiency feed formulation. The expected results are to obtain prime fish fry, to increase production and productivity of fishponds, to increase the farmer income and to find a new technology package of growing carp. From the study of stimulated growth from breeding with shock temperature was obtained the best result at the shock temperature treatment of breed + commercial food with. It can be concluded that the treatment of breed with shock temperature + commercial food was better but was not significantly different from other treatment.
Keywords: growing, carp, breeding
SINTESIS POLIELEKTROLIT ANIONIK DARI PATI SAGU
Amilia Linggawati*, Muhdarina
Jurusan Kimia, FMIPA, Universitas Riau
Diterima 6-8-2001 Disetujui 9-9-2001
Anionic polyelectrolite were synthesized from sago starch and phosphate starch. The variables were sago starch and phosphate salt weight ratio, stirring and reaction time. Correlation analysis between those variables, substitution value and polyelectrolite ability as flocculant showed that the higher phosphate salt and sago starch ratio, the longer reaction time increased the substitution value. The highest substitution value is 0.248. The occurance of substitution can be proven by using data from IR Spectometer and P-O-C vibration at 1000-1200 cm-1 region. The ability to floc is the highest at substitution value 0.200, in 100 ppm concentration with 16.7% the ability to decrease turbidity, as well as to increase the floc diameter into d3 and pH from 5.5 to 6.68.
Keywords: Polyelectrolyte anionic , flocculant , substitution value, sago starch
ANALISIS PERTUMBUHAN MIKROBA
IKAN JAMBAL SIAM (Pangasius sutchi) ASAP YANG TELAH
DIAWETKAN SECARA ENSILING
Wazna Amin, Tjipto Leksono
Faperika, Universitas Riau
Diterima 09-8-2001 Disetujui 12-9-2001
The dipping treatment of giant fresh-water catfish (Pangasius sutchi) into the liquid of fermented cabbage (Brassica oleracia) affected significantly the sensory value, total bacteria and molds of the smoked fish. The dipping treatment (ensiling) for 3 hours could keep the sensory quality of the smoked catfish up to 35 days. Dipping the catfish for 2 hours and 1 hour and without dipping kept the sensory quality for 35, 30, and 25 days respectively. Water content of the smoked-catfish yielded is between 30,5% and 34,8%. Total bacteria of the smoked-catfish are between 2,6x102 and 8,3 x 104 cell/gr, below the rejection borderline, meanwhile the total molds are between 2,1 x 102 and 8,8 x 108 cell/gr. The species of molds identified are Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus sp.
Keywords: Pangasius sutchi, Brassica oleracia, ensiling, smoked-fish
AKUMULASI DAN DISTRIBUSI LOGAM BERAT Pb DAN Cu PADA MANGROVE (Avicennia marina) DI PERAIRAN PANTAI DUMAI, RIAU
Laboratorium Kimia Laut, Faperika, Universitas Riau
Diterima 27-8-2001 Disetujui 30-9-2001
A survey on heavy metal content in mangrove (Avicennia marina) has been conducted in December 1999. Sampels of roots and leaves mangrove were taken from Dumai and Bangsal Aceh coastal area. Heavy metal content analysis was carried out in Research and Industrial Development Laboratory West Sumatera, Padang. The result showed that the average heavy metal content in area with heavy industrial activities (Dumai) were higher than that from relatively clean area (Bangsal Aceh). High concentration of Pb and Cu in mangrove root and leaves in Dumai Area was attributed to continuous accumulation due to heavy industry and anthropogenic wastes brought in by two major rivers which passed through heavily populated area. In contrast to Cu, concentrations of Pb in pneumatophore were lower than that in cable root. Meanwhile Cu concentrations were higher than Pb in both roots and leaves of mangrove.
Keywords : heavy metals, mangrove, bioindicator, Dumai
MENGHILANGKAN KEKABURAN PADA CITRA YANG DISEBABKAN OLEH GERAKAN LINEAR SERAGAM
Jurusan Matematika, FMIPA,Universitas Riau
This paper is intended to develop the mathematical model of the removal of the blur on the image caused by the uniform linear motion, the motion on either the x axis or y axis. The mathematical model of this uniform linear motion is constructed based on the degradation model. Then, the resulted model is solved to yield the solution of the problem using Fourier transform.
Keywords: blurred image, uniform linear motion.
ANALISIS DRAINASE VERTIKAL UNTUK MEMPERCEPAT KONSOLIDASI PADA TANAH LUNAK
Jurusan Teknik Sipil, FT, Universitas Riau
Diterima 19-8-2001 Disetujui 24-9-2001
The purpose of this research was to analyse a soft ground improvement method for foundation base in Dumai’s beach. Some samples were taken from the field. Then some tests were carried out to obtain some parameters regarding consolidation test method, such as compression index (Cc), consolidation coefficient (Ch). The parameters were used to calculate column dimension. Finally, the ground stability and discharged were analysed to determine the safety factor. Result shows that soft ground improvement in Dumai’s beach need approximately 3,5 years from 80% consolidation time.
Keywords: vertical drain, consolidation, soft ground
PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR TAPIOKA DENGAN TEKNOLOGI EM (EFFECTIVE MIKROORGANISMS)
T. Abu Hanifah*), Christine Jose dan Titania T. Nugroho
*) Corresponding Author
Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Riau
Diterima tanggal : 20 – 2 – 2001
Disetujui tanggal : 30 – 3 - 2001
The cultivation of tapioca liquid waste as microbiology treatment has been investigated. Waste were cultivated by effective microorganisms (EM) technology in the laboratorium scale. Sample were taken from PT. Sari Bumi Swakarsa, Kabupaten Kuantan Singingi, Riau Province and brought to the laboratorium using two plastic containers. Sample in the first container contains final process of liquid wastes (out let) for quality control. The second container contains liquid wastes before processing which treated with EM. The purpose of this research was to hasten the decomposition processes of tapioca liquid waste using EM technology.
The cultivation of EM used triple treatments. Two treatment were using EM with concentration of 0.5% (A series) and 1% (B series). Another treatment was without EM (C series). The changing of water quality before and after treatment was compared to tapioca liquid waste standard (KepMenLH No.51/MenLH/10/1995) in charge of pH, BOD, COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and cyanide. Time variables were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days treatment Data was analyzed using statistic ANOVA. The effect of EM was observed using Duncan’s test at confidence interval 95%.
The statistical analyzes of the experimental data showed that A series and B series had BOD, COD TSS, and cyanide less than C series (p£0.05). The differences of EM concentrations were not affect toward BOD, COD and TSS. B series was effectively to decrease cyanide (p£0.05). EM technology could be used to cultivate tapioca liquid waste more quickly (12 days) than industrial processes (3 months) to achieve wastewater quality standard.
Key word: Effective microorganisms, tapioca liquid waste, treatment.